Xavier Leprince was born on August 28, 1799. His father, Anne Pierre Leprince, was a painter and a lithographer. His brothers, Robert Leopold Leprince and Gustave Leprince, were both painters.
Leprince painted the streets of Paris and the landscapes of rural France. He also did paintings depicting the existence of labourers and cattle in rural France. For example, his 1822 painting La moisson showed labourers harvesting a field. His 1823 painting, Embarquement des bestiaux [sous robe rouge] sur le Passager dans le port de Honfleur, became emblematic of cattle paintings of the era.
Leprince exhibited at the Salon from 1819 onwards. Marie-Caroline de Bourbon-Sicile, duchesse de Berry owned some of his paintings.