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A.P.POLO - CAERULEUM



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A.P.Polo - "Caeruleum" - Hamburg (Germany) - New Media Art. Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting, drawing (art) and tradi...[+]


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Impression Giclée sur toile

Toutes nos toiles étirées sont faites sur-mesure, à partir d’une toile d’exposition de 410g/m2 Bois large de 1.5 pouce de style “galerie”.     
Impression Giclée avec encre pigmentée conçue pour répondre aux exigences de longévité de musées et galeries et assurer l’uniformité des nuances de couleur pour plus de 200 ans. [+]

A.P.POLO - CAERULEUM  A P POLO  Impression sur toile
A.P.Polo - Caeruleum  Cadre de décoration (moulures)
Impression sur toile étirée   Expédition aux USA & Canada
Prêt à être accroché - Tendu sur cadre en bois d’une épaisseur de 1,5 pouces.
21 x 30 pouces
54 x 77 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$360
25 x 36 pouces
64 x 92 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$456
29 x 42 pouces
74 x 108 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$568
34 x 48 pouces
87 x 123 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$716
38 x 55 pouces
97 x 141 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1260
42 x 60 pouces
108 x 154 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1412
50 x 72 pouces
128 x 185 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$2176


Toile étirée en plusieurs panneaux


A.P.Polo - Caeruleum  Impression sur toile
25 x 36 Triptique ( croix )
28 x 36 en comprenant l’espace.
1x8x36   2X [ 8X30
$600

Impression acrylique

A.P.Polo - Caeruleum  Impression acrylique Impression Acrylique A.P.Polo - Caeruleum  Impression Acrylique A.P.Polo - Caeruleum   Impression Acrylique
Obtenez une pièce d’art moderne avec cette impression acrylique.
Fine Art fabriqué à partir d’un acrylique poli haut de gamme, le meilleur de sa catégorie, 99,9% optiquement pur et le dernier savoir-faire d’impression à plat.  
Vidéo
[+]

  Impression sur acrylique avec cadre flottant en arrière.
Imprimé jusqu’au bord et prêt à être accroché, avec un cadre flottant à l’arrière.     
1/8" Thickness:
21 x 30 pouces
54 x 77 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$582
25 x 36 pouces
64 x 92 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$774
29 x 42 pouces
74 x 108 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1001
34 x 48 pouces
87 x 123 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1295
38 x 55 pouces
97 x 141 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$2001
42 x 60 pouces
108 x 154 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$2308
3/16" Thickness:
21 x 30 pouces
54 x 77 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$703
25 x 36 pouces
64 x 92 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$947
29 x 42 pouces
74 x 108 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1234
34 x 48 pouces
87 x 123 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1609
38 x 55 pouces
97 x 141 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$2403
42 x 60 pouces
108 x 154 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$2791

  Impression sur acrylique avec entretoises ( cylindres métalliques )
Imprimé jusqu’au bord et prêt à être accroché, avec 4 cylindres (entretoises) en aluminium ( les vis murales sont incluses )
Nous suggérons un plus acrylique épais (3/16 ") pour les taille plus de 42 pouces, pour garantir un acrylique droit, sans courbure
1/8" Thickness:
21 x 30 pouces
54 x 77 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$582
25 x 36 pouces
64 x 92 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$774
29 x 42 pouces
74 x 108 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1001
34 x 48 pouces
87 x 123 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1295
38 x 55 pouces
97 x 141 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$2001
42 x 60 pouces
108 x 154 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$2308
3/16" Thickness:
21 x 30 pouces
54 x 77 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$703
25 x 36 pouces
64 x 92 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$947
29 x 42 pouces
74 x 108 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1234
34 x 48 pouces
87 x 123 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1609
38 x 55 pouces
97 x 141 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$2403
42 x 60 pouces
108 x 154 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$2791


Impression sur metal brossé / Impression lisse en métal blanc

A.P.Polo - Caeruleum   Impression metal A.P.Polo - Caeruleum  Impression metal A.P.Polo - Caeruleum  Impression metal

Les sections de la photographie qui sont blanches ou très claires ne sont pas imprimées. Les zones blanches apparaissent métalliques.
Robuste, léger et offre un effet de réflexion de lumière unique [+]

  Impression sur metal brossé et cadre flottant
Impression pleine et montage avec un cadre flottant à l’arrière de 3/4 pouce d’épaisseur avec fil de suspension. 
21 x 30 pouces
54 x 77 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$631
25 x 36 pouces
64 x 92 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$870
29 x 42 pouces
74 x 108 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1153
34 x 48 pouces
87 x 123 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1520
38 x 55 pouces
97 x 141 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$2307
42 x 60 pouces
108 x 154 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$2689

  Impression sur métal brossé avec entretoises
Imprimé jusqu’au bord et prêt à être accroché, avec 4 cylindres (entretoises) en aluminium ( les vis murales sont incluses )
21 x 30 pouces
54 x 77 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$631
25 x 36 pouces
64 x 92 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$870
29 x 42 pouces
74 x 108 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1153
34 x 48 pouces
87 x 123 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1520
38 x 55 pouces
97 x 141 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$2307
42 x 60 pouces
108 x 154 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$2689

  Impression sur métal brossé avec une couche lustrée d’epoxy
Avec un cadre flottant à l'arrière et nous appliquons manuellement un vernis époxy pour un effet de lumière étonnant
21 x 30 pouces
54 x 77 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1390
25 x 36 pouces
64 x 92 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1917
28 x 40 pouces
72 x 103 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$2346

Impression directe sur métal pour fournir une finition satinée lisse et blanche avec réflexion contrôlée de la lumière
Robuste, très léger et offre un effet mat [+]  

  Impression métal blanc avec cadre flottant à l’arrière
Impression pleine et montage avec un cadre flottant à l’arrière de 3/4 pouce d’épaisseur avec fil de suspension. 
21 x 30 pouces
54 x 77 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$631
25 x 36 pouces
64 x 92 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$870
29 x 42 pouces
74 x 108 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1153
34 x 48 pouces
87 x 123 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1520
38 x 55 pouces
97 x 141 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$2307
42 x 60 pouces
108 x 154 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$2689

  Impression sur métal brossé avec entretoises
Imprimé jusqu’au bord et prêt à être accroché, avec 4 cylindres (entretoises) en aluminium ( les vis murales sont incluses )
21 x 30 pouces
54 x 77 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$631
25 x 36 pouces
64 x 92 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$870
29 x 42 pouces
74 x 108 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1153
34 x 48 pouces
87 x 123 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1520
38 x 55 pouces
97 x 141 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$2307
42 x 60 pouces
108 x 154 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$2689



HD ChromaLuxe Impression de Sublimation Métal haute brillance

A.P.Polo - Caeruleum   Impression métal HD avec cadre flottant sur le dos A.P.Polo - Caeruleum  Impression de sublimation métal HD A.P.Polo - Caeruleum  Impression metal A.P.Polo - Caeruleum  HD sublimation métal imprimé avec décoration flotteur cadre (boîte)

Brillance des couleurs, durabilité supérieure et qualités archivistiques
Cette oeuvre est produite sur une sublimation de colorant Chromaluxe panneau en métal haute définition  
Vidéo
[+]

  Impression de Sublimation Hi-Gloss sur métal blanc avec cadre arrière
Impression pleine et montage avec un cadre flottant à l’arrière de 3/4 pouce d’épaisseur avec fil de suspension. 
21 x 30 pouces
54 x 77 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$742
25 x 36 pouces
64 x 92 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1018
29 x 42 pouces
74 x 108 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1344
34 x 48 pouces
87 x 123 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1767
38 x 55 pouces
97 x 141 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$2615

  Impression de Sublimation Hi-Gloss sur métal blanc avec cadre décoratif
À l’intérieur d’un cadre de décoration (boîte)-cadre flottant noir
21 x 30 pouces
54 x 77 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1150
25 x 36 pouces
64 x 92 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1506
29 x 42 pouces
74 x 108 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1912
34 x 48 pouces
87 x 123 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$2423
38 x 55 pouces
97 x 141 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$3359


Impression sur bois

A.P.Polo - Caeruleum   Impression sur bois A.P.Polo - Caeruleum  Impression metal A.P.Polo - Caeruleum  Impression sur bois A.P.Polo - Caeruleum  Impression sur bois

Imprimé avec des encres UV qui procurent une qualité d’image incroyable et qui résistent aux égratignures. Les couleurs ne pâliront pas à travers le temps.
Les zones blanches et très claires ne sont pas imprimées sur le bois, révélant la beauté naturelle de la texture du bois
Imprimé sur un bois large de 3/8 de pouces ( 9mm). Ce bois préparé à partir de merisier russe, il est durable et robuste. [+]

Impression sur bois avec cadre flottant arrière
Impression pleine et montage avec un cadre flottant à l’arrière  
Vidéo
[+]
21 x 30 pouces
54 x 77 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$511
25 x 36 pouces
64 x 92 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$678
29 x 42 pouces
74 x 108 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$875
34 x 48 pouces
87 x 123 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1132
38 x 55 pouces
97 x 141 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$1796
42 x 60 pouces
108 x 154 cm
Aperçu de l’image
$2062


Impression en Rouleau.

Nous expédions dans le monde entier!

Impression murale

Facile à installer. Vinyle auto-adhésif, lavable et repositionnable [+]
Vidéo
A.P.Polo - Caeruleum  Impression murale
A.P.Polo - Caeruleum  Impression murale
A.P.Polo - Caeruleum  Impression murale
Pour obtenir le prix de votre murale, Entrez les mesures de votre mur :

POUCE PIED CM
Largeur: in.
Hauteur : in.
Width: ft in
Heigth: ft in
Width: cm
Heigth: cm


Notre technologie de 10 couleurs
Nos peintures murales sont produites sur des imprimantes avec une qualité d’impression photographique exceptionnelle. Une résolution d’image extrême : qualité d'image photographique
avec la gamme de couleurs plus grande de sa catégorie

Facile à installer
Notre impression murale peut être enlevée sans aucun dommage à vos murs. Facile à modifier ou à supprimer. Nous utilisons un média de 6 mil auto-adhésif en vinyle avec une texture subtile de lin-coton.
Changer l’apparence d’une pièce sans avoir à utiliser du papier peint traditionnel. Nos impressions murales deviennent la solution parfaite pour améliorer facilement n’importe quel espace résidentiel ou commercial !

Vinyle autocollant repositionnable livré par bande de 35 à 45 pouces de largeur qui se chevauchent légèrement pour faciliter l’installation.
[Plus d’infos sur nos impressions murales]

Impression encadrée sur mesure

Pour obtenir "A.P.Polo - Caeruleum " dans une impression encadrée.
Entièrement personnalisable - à la taille exacte que vous désirez. Sélectionnez le type de papier, le verre, le mat et le cadre de décoration
Commencez à construire votre impression encadrée personnalisée en sélectionnant l’une des moulures suivantes:
A.P.Polo - Caeruleum  Cadre photo
Frame model shown: 832-745

MOULURE DÉCORATIVES
MOULURE DÉCORATIVES
MOULURE DÉCORATIVES
MOULURE DÉCORATIVES
MOULURE DÉCORATIVES
MOULURE DÉCORATIVES

Impression encadrée de format standard

  [+]  
Vidéo

20 x 28"
$356
20 x 28" Framed Print

A.P.Polo - Caeruleum  Impression du cadre
Surface imprimée: 16 x 24"
Total Intérieur de la surface: 20.00 x 28.00"
Bordure blanche: 2" on each side
Largeur de l'image: 1.25" on each side
Dimension physique totale: 29,25 x 21,25"

Frame model: 832-745
Printing method: 1200dpi UV cured ink on fine art matte board
Ready to hang with wire at the back
24 x 34"
$476
24 x 34" Framed Print

A.P.Polo - Caeruleum  Impression du cadre
Surface imprimée: 20 x 30"
Total Intérieur de la surface: 24.00 x 34.00"
Bordure blanche: 2" on each side
Largeur de l'image: 1.25" on each side
Dimension physique totale: 35,25 x 25,25"

Frame model: 832-745
Printing method: 1200dpi UV cured ink on fine art matte board
Ready to hang with wire at the back
28 x 40"
$596
28 x 40" Framed Print

A.P.Polo - Caeruleum  Impression du cadre
Surface imprimée: 24 x 36"
Total Intérieur de la surface: 28.00 x 40.00"
Bordure blanche: 2" on each side
Largeur de l'image: 1.63" on each side
Dimension physique totale: 41,63 x 29,63"

Frame model: 800-967
Printing method: 1200dpi UV cured ink on fine art matte board
Ready to hang with wire at the back

Impression de Puzzle

A.P.Polo - Caeruleum  A P Polo Impression de puzzle A.P.Polo - Caeruleum  A P Polo Puzzle

Produit avec précision par le procédé de sublimation HD et protégé par un vernis très brillant.
Contrairement à l’impression traditionnelle — Cette œuvre d’art est produite par impression par sublimation. Nous utilisons la chaleur et la pression pour transférer les images directement à la surface du puzzle, en liant votre image au substrat au niveau moléculaire.  
Vidéo
[+]


Puzzle High Gloss 120 pcs 11x8  
28 x 20 cm
$73
Puzzle High Gloss 315 pcs 17x12  
44 x 31 cm
$88
500 pcs 21.25 x 15.75 inches Puzzle High Gloss  
54 x 40 cm
$105
Puzzle High Gloss 1000 pcs 27x17.5  
69 x 45 cm
$123
Puzzle High Gloss 1500 pcs 27x17  
91 x 61 cm
$163

Horloge murale

Détails du produit

Cette œuvre d'art est réalisée en acrylique de haute qualité Prêt à être accroché.   
Vidéo

Mécanisme d'horloge avec un mouvement à quartz précis. Pile incluse
Disponible en format carré ou rond
Disponible en 12" 16" 24"

Créer le vôtre

Téléchargement Numérique

File resolution: 8430 x 12000 pixels


SUR CETTE OEUVRE: A.P.POLO - CAERULEUM
A.P.Polo - "Caeruleum" - Hamburg (Germany) - New Media Art. Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting, drawing (art) and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model. It lies between purple and green on the spectrum of visible light. The eye perceives blue when observing light with a dominant wavelength between approximately 450 and 495 nanometres. Most blues contain a slight mixture of other colours; azure contains some green, while ultramarine contains some violet. Blue has been an important colour in art and decoration since ancient times. The semi-precious stone lapis lazuli was used in ancient Egypt for jewellery and ornament and later, in the Renaissance, to make the pigment ultramarine, the most expensive of all pigments. In the eighth century Chinese artists used cobalt blue to colour fine blue and white porcelain. In the Middle Ages, European artists used it in the windows of cathedrals. Europeans wore clothing coloured with the vegetable dye woad until it was replaced by the finer indigo from America. In the 19th century, synthetic blue dyes and pigments gradually replaced organic dyes and mineral pigments. Surveys in the US and Europe show that blue is the colour most commonly associated with harmony, faithfulness, confidence, distance, infinity, the imagination, cold, and occasionally with sadness. In US and European public opinion polls it is the most popular colour, chosen by almost half of both men and women as their favourite color. The modern English word blue comes from Middle English bleu or blewe, from the Old French bleu, a word of Germanic origin, related to the Old High German word blao (meaning shimmering, lustrous). Since the Middle Ages, artists and scholars have developed different theories about the origin of blue in historical treatises on colour physics. In his Book of Painting, Leonardo da Vinci described the nature and effect of blue as immaterial, not a colour of the air but a metaphysical mixture of sunlight with the "blackness of the world's eclipse". Goethe, for whom there were only two pure colours, yellow and blue, similarly placed blue on the border of darkness and thus diametrically opposed to yellow, which stood on the border of light. The pantheistic view of his colour theory thus combined the natural scientific with the aesthetic, mystical and psychological aspects. Newton's discoveries, which Goethe rejected, identify blue in the spectrum red/orange/yellow/green/blue/violet as one of the spectral colours which, when all of these are mixed, produce white (through additive colour mixing). In the 19th century the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell found a new way of explaining colours, by the wavelength of their light. He showed that white light could be created by combining red, blue and green light, and that virtually all colours could be made by different combinations of these three colours. His idea, called additive colour or the RGB colour model, is used today to create colours on televisions and computer screens. Blue was a latecomer among colours used in art and decoration, as well as language and literature. Reds, blacks, browns, and ochres are found in cave paintings from the Upper Paleolithic period, but not blue. Blue was also not used for dyeing fabric until long after red, ochre, pink and purple. This is probably due to the perennial difficulty of making good blue dyes and pigments. The earliest known blue dyes were made from plants – woad in Europe, indigo in Asia and Africa, while blue pigments were made from minerals, usually either lapis lazuli or azurite. Lapis lazuli, a semi-precious stone, has been mined in Afghanistan for more than three thousand years, and was exported to all parts of the ancient world. Blue glazed faience ornaments have been found to have been produced during 4th millennium civilization Indus Valley Civilization (present day India and Pakistan). In Iran and Mesopotamia, it was used to make jewellery and vessels. In Egypt, it was used for the eyebrows on the funeral mask of King Tutankhamun. Importing lapis lazuli by caravan across the desert from Afghanistan to Egypt was very expensive. Beginning in about 2500 BC, the ancient Egyptians began to produce their own blue pigment known as Egyptian blue by grinding silica, lime, copper, and alkalai, and heating it to 800 or 900 °C. This is considered the first synthetic pigment. Egyptian blue was used to paint wood, papyrus and canvas, and was used to colour a glaze to make faience beads, inlays, and pots. It was particularly used in funeral statuary and figurines and in tomb paintings. Blue was considered a beneficial colour which would protect the dead against evil in the afterlife. Blue dye was also used to colour the cloth in which mummies were wrapped. In Egypt blue was associated with the sky and with divinity. The Egyptian god Amun could make his skin blue so that he could fly, invisible, across the sky. Blue could also protect against evil; many people around the Mediterranean still wear a blue amulet, representing the eye of God, to protect them from misfortune. Blue glass was manufactured in Mesopotamia and Egypt as early as 2500 BC, using the same copper ingredients as Egyptian blue pigment. They also added cobalt, which produced a deeper blue, the same blue produced in the Middle Ages in the stained glass windows of the cathedrals of Saint-Denis and Chartres. The Ishtar Gate of ancient Babylon (604–562 BC) was decorated with deep blue glazed bricks used as a background for pictures of lions, dragons and aurochs. The ancient Greeks classified colours by whether they were light or dark, rather than by their hue. The Greek word for dark blue, kyaneos, could also mean dark green, violet, black or brown. The ancient Greek word for a light blue, glaukos, also could mean light green, grey, or yellow. The Greeks imported indigo dye from India, calling it indikon. They used Egyptian blue in the wall paintings of Knossos, in Crete, around 2100 BC. It was not one of the four primary colours for Greek painting described by Pliny the Elder (red, yellow, black, and white), but nonetheless it was used as a background colour behind the friezes on Greek temples and to colour the beards of Greek statues. The Romans also imported indigo dye, but blue was the colour of working class clothing; the nobles and rich wore white, black, red or violet. Blue was considered the colour of mourning, and the colour of barbarians. Julius Caesar reported that the Celts and Germans dyed their faces blue to frighten their enemies, and tinted their hair blue when they grew old. Nonetheless, the Romans made extensive use of blue for decoration. According to Vitruvius, they made dark blue pigment from indigo, and imported Egyptian blue pigment. The walls of Roman villas in Pompeii had frescoes of brilliant blue skies, and blue pigments were found in the shops of colour merchants. The Romans had many different words for varieties of blue, including caeruleus, caesius, glaucus, cyaneus, lividus, venetus, aerius, and ferreus, but two words, both of foreign origin, became the most enduring; blavus, from the Germanic word blau, which eventually became bleu or blue; and azureus, from the Arabic word lazaward, which became azure. In the art and life of Europe during the early Middle Ages, blue played a minor role. The nobility wore red or purple, while only the poor wore blue clothing, coloured with poor-quality dyes made from the woad plant. Blue played no part in the rich costumes of the clergy or the architecture or decoration of churches. This changed dramatically between 1130 and 1140 in Paris, when the Abbe Suger rebuilt the Saint Denis Basilica. He installed stained glass windows coloured with cobalt, which, combined with the light from the red glass, filled the church with a bluish violet light. The church became the marvel of the Christian world, and the colour became known as the "bleu de Saint-Denis". In the Renaissance, a revolution occurred in painting; artists began to paint the world as it was actually seen, with perspective, depth, shadows, and light from a single source. Artists had to adapt their use of blue to the new rules. In medieval paintings, blue was used to attract the attention of the viewer to the Virgin Mary, and identify her. In Renaissance paintings, artists tried to create harmonies between blue and red, lightening the blue with lead white paint and adding shadows and highlights. Raphael was a master of this technique, carefully balancing the reds and the blues so no one colour dominated the picture. Ultramarine was the most prestigious blue of the Renaissance, and patrons sometimes specified that it be used in paintings they commissioned. The contract for the Madone des Harpies by Andrea del Sarto (1514) required that the robe of the Virgin Mary be coloured with ultramarine costing "at least five good florins an ounce." Good ultramarine was more expensive than gold; in 1508 the German painter Albrecht Dürer reported in a letter that he had paid twelve ducats – the equivalent of 41 g (1.4 oz) of gold – for just 30 g (1.1 oz) of ultramarine. Often painters or clients saved money by using less expensive blues, such as azurite smalt, or pigments made with indigo, but this sometimes caused problems. Pigments made from azurite were less expensive, but tended to turn dark and green with time. An example is the robe of the Virgin Mary in The Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints by Raphael in the Metropolitan Museum in New York. The Virgin Mary's azurite blue robe has degraded into a greenish-black. The introduction of oil painting changed the way colours looked and how they were used. Ultramarine pigment, for instance, was much darker when used in oil painting than when used in tempera painting, in frescoes. To balance their colours, Renaissance artists like Raphael added white to lighten the ultramarine. The sombre dark blue robe of the Virgin Mary became a brilliant sky blue. Titian created his rich blues by using many thin glazes of paint of different blues and violets which allowed the light to pass through, which made a complex and luminous colour, like stained glass. He also used layers of finely ground or coarsely ground ultramarine, which gave subtle variations to the blue. Monochromatic painting has been an important component of avant-garde visual art throughout the 20th century and into the 21st century. Painters have created the exploration of one color, examining values changing across a surface, texture, and nuance, expressing a wide variety of emotions, intentions, and meanings in many different forms. From geometric precision to expressionism, the monochrome has proved to be a durable idiom in Contemporary art. Monochrome painting was initiated at the first Incoherent arts' exhibition in 1882 in Paris, with a black painting by poet Paul Bilhaud entitled Combat de Nègres dans un tunnel (Negroes fight in a tunnel). (Although Bilhaud was not the first to create an all-black artwork: for example, Robert Fludd published an image of Darkness in his 1617 book on the origin and structure of the cosmos; and Bertall published his black Vue de La Hogue (effet de nuit) in 1843.) In the subsequent exhibitions of the Incoherent arts (also in the 1880s) the writer Alphonse Allais proposed other monochrome paintings, such as "Première communion de jeunes filles chlorotiques par un temps de neige" ("First communion of anaemic young girls in the snow", white), or "Récolte de la tomate par des cardinaux apoplectiques au bord de la Mer Rouge" ("Tomato harvesting by apoplectic cardinals on the shore of the Red Sea", red). Allais published his Album primo-avrilesque in 1897, a monograph with seven monochrome artworks. However, this kind of activity bears more similarity to 20th century Dada, or Neo-Dada, and particularly the works of the Fluxus group of the 1960s, than to 20th century monochrome painting since Malevich. In a broad and general sense, one finds European roots of minimalism in the geometric abstractions of painters associated with the Bauhaus, in the works of Kazimir Malevich, Piet Mondrian and other artists associated with the De Stijl movement, and the Russian Constructivist movement, and in the work of the Romanian sculptor Constantin Brâncu?i. Minimal art is also inspired in part by the paintings of Barnett Newman, Ad Reinhardt, Josef Albers, and the works of artists as diverse as Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Giorgio Morandi, and others. Minimalism was also a reaction against the painterly subjectivity of Abstract Expressionism that had been dominant in the New York School during the 1940s and 1950s. The wide range of possibilities (including impossibility) of interpretation of monochrome paintings is arguably why the monochrome is so engaging to so many artists, critics, and writers. Although the monochrome has never become dominant and few artists have committed themselves exclusively to it, it has never gone away. It reappears as though a spectre haunting high modernism, or as a symbol of it, appearing during times of aesthetic and sociopolitical upheavals. Monochrome painting as it is usually understood today began in Moscow, with Suprematist Composition: White on White of 1918 by Suprematist artist Kazimir Malevich. This was a variation on or sequel to his 1915 work Black Square on a White Field, a very important work in its own right to 20th century geometric abstraction. In 1921, Constructivist artist Alexander Rodchenko exhibited three paintings together, each a monochrome of one of the three primary colours. He intended this work to represent The Death of Painting. While Rodchenko intended his monochrome to be a dismantling of the typical assumptions of painting, Malevich saw his work as a concentration on them, a kind of meditation on art's essence (“pure feeling”). These two approaches articulated very early on in its history this kind of work's almost paradoxical dynamic: that one can read a monochrome either as a flat surface (material entity or “painting as object”) which represents nothing but itself, and therefore representing an ending in the evolution of illusionism in painting; or as a depiction of multidimensional (infinite) space, a fulfillment of illusionistic painting, representing a new evolution—a new beginning—in Western painting's history. Additionally, many have pointed out that it may be difficult to deduce the artist's intentions from the painting itself, without referring to the artist's comment. Chronos is the personification of time in Greek mythology. He is partly identified with the Titan Kronos. He symbolises the passage of time and also the duration of life. Chronos comes from the myths of the Orphics, an ancient religious movement in Greece, southern Italy and the Black Sea coast (from around the 6th/5th century BC). According to these myths, he himself emerged from the dark chaos and, as the creator god, produced the silver world egg from the aether. This in turn gave rise to Phanes, the god of light, who was particularly revered by the Orphics and identified with Helios, but also with Eros and Dionysus. Chronos plays an important role in the speculative poetry of the Orphics, but a cult of Chronos never existed in antiquity. There was also no fixed iconography and no representations of Chronos in archaic and classical Greek art. The oldest known representation is on a relief from Hellenistic times. There Chronos appears as a beardless figure with large wings. Chronos was the personification of an abstract concept and not a component of Greek popular religion. The same applies to Phanes, who also had no popular cult.

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